Custom Software Development VS Off the Shelf Software Solutions

Organizations and businesses are always looking for solutions to reduce their overhead operating cost. Usually, they turn towards IT industry to gain effective solutions in this matter. IT industry offers basically two types of softwares that can help organizations with their IT requirements. The first one is off the shelf software that is already available in the market and can be directly bought and used by the company. These softwares are usually built by a software development company and launched in the Market for sale. The other category contains custom software development solutions that are built around the specific requirements of the client or organization. Both the solutions are entirely different, both in manufacturing and development.

Some of most relevant differences between custom software development and Off the shelf solutions are:

The total cost of the software for clients: The most superficial and prominent looking difference between these two solutions is their price. Off the shelf softwares are usually cheaper than custom solutions. The reason being that off the shelf softwares are mass produced and their cost is distributed among several buyers, whereas, custom solutions are developed by a software development company for specific requirements of their client. Its cost is entirely borne by one buyer. The choice may seem pretty obvious when both the options are available for the client. But why would one go for custom software development? The answer is in the next difference.

Development methodology and usage: Off the shelf softwares are made for a general audience. They may be targeted towards one segment of business but they are never able to fulfill all the requirements of any one particular organization. An organization will require the help of a software development company to make adjustments in the software and make it good enough to be implemented. The custom software development offers big time advantage in this section. The custom solution is built around the exact requirements of the client therefore it is completely compatible and suitable with their organizations processes. Even employees who have to work on these softwares get easily accustomed to them in a few days. This is the most dominant reason that attracts organizations towards custom software development.

Software updates: Another problem with Off the Shelf softwares is that each time the software is revised, the organizations have to pay for the updates. Further, they might not even release any updates for long periods which will make the software old and obsolete. This will harm the organization more than it can help. On the other hand, custom softwares can be updated whenever the client feels like. Their extent can be decided according to the client’s requirements and their budget.

Off the shelf softwares have their own advantages such as quick implementation and start-up, suitably tested solution and money back guarantee offered in case the software is not able to serve its purpose. The risk of getting an unreliable and not properly tested solution is higher in custom software development. But this complexity can easily be solved by hiring a highly reputed and experienced software development company. Choosing the right development partner is most essential in such scenarios. Clients should make their choice only after doing extensive research and information gathering about the software development company of their choice.

5 Great Uses of the Internet

Over the last decade the internet has become a familiar presence in most of our lives and beyond providing us with an unprecedented source of information it has also fundamentally changed the way we communicate, shop, socialise and even carry out our politics. But for those who are yet to take their first tentative steps online, what are the main benefits that lie ahead.

1. A Source of Information

The advent of the internet was anticipated to bring the world access to new levels of information and for many that is still the primary reason to log on. The sources of information can though come in all manner of ‘shapes and sizes’ ranging from individual companies’ websites, providing information surrounding the products and services they offer, to information sites run by organisations that act as authorities on various topics, passionate individuals, community led encyclopedias, news sites and dedicated online learning sites.

For example, someone with questions regarding their health can refer to the UK’s NHS website free of charge to find out information that may have only been available before by consulting a clinician or by investing in medical literature and books.

An advantage that the internet offers as a medium for this information (against for example, a book) is that it can be kept up to date and relevant almost instantaneously as information and data changes without the need for it to be recirculated or re-purchased. A prime example of this are news sites which are able to show people news as it breaks without having to wait until the paper rounds the next morning.

Many sites manage keep their content fresh and up-to-date by calling upon communities of contributors. Perhaps the most referenced information source on the internet, Wikipedia, relies on thousands of un-paid contributors to provide the content for the site.

In addition many specialist sites have forums which not only allow users to supply information but to request it and discuss it and therefore provide a means for people to find out almost anything they need to. All of this contributor based information is of course susceptible to inaccuracies by its nature but by taking sensible precautions, the internet can be the most invaluable resource.

What’s more, the ease with which we access this information is constantly improving as search engines compete with each other and evolve to give you the links to the websites that you are really looking for out of the billions that are currently on the world wide web.

2. Communicating & Socialising

Arguably the most revolutionary communication channel that the internet has opened up is that of email – the ability for people to send instant communications to other people no matter where they are in the world. Before the arrival of the internet and email, someone in the UK who wanted to send a picture to a friend or colleague at the other end of the country, never mind the other side of the world, would have had to wait days for it to arrive.

The ability to communicate over the internet has moved on considerably from simple email though. People are increasingly using the internet as a way of socialising day-to-day and keeping in touch in friends and loved ones. Social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, give people the chance to share and discuss all aspects of their lives with their friends (and the general public) – their favourite pictures, videos, music, games and websites.

The term ‘Social Media’ is a broad umbrella term for a number of different services and technologies such as blogging (sharing your thoughts and opinions in short articles), instant messaging, sharing of online content and tweeting (small text updates on thoughts and activities). The major advantages of these services being that many are free and accessible at any time of the day wherever you are in the world.

The concept of sharing is key to social networking and with the instantaneous nature of communications, the variety of media which can be shared and the lack of geographical boundaries, the internet can help build relationships which would have been impossible before. People can easily find and stay in touch with friends that they may have lost touch with over the years and meet new people with similar interest that they would never have otherwise met. Consequently one particular area of the internet that is booming is that of online dating, providing people with the chance to find love beyond their location, work place or social circles.

Most communication in social networking ultimately occurs in writing or text and therefore the use of social media, as well as forums and mobile phone texting, has even changed the way we use language with many abbreviations and acronyms making their way into everyday ‘offline’ language.

Social media encourages the building of online communities that far exceed the reach of traditional communities in terms of both geographical location and sheer numbers. These communities can in turn pool information as mentioned before but also unite behind causes, good or bad, as seen with the contrasting examples of the recent riots in London and the moves to sign e-petitions calling for documents regarding the Hillsborough tragedy to be made public.

In addition to social media, the internet has even changed the way we communicate with each other over the phone. Traditional phone networks and services are being challenged by what is known as VoIP (Voice over the Internet Protocol) which is essentially a way in which sound is transferred over the internet in small digital packets of information instead of down standards phone lines. The big benefits for most of us are that we can now speak to loved ones elsewhere in world for far less expense than ever before and often we can integrate other elements such as instant messaging and face-to-face video conferencing into our conversations.

3. Shopping and Money

The internet has revolutionised the way in which we all shop. Virtually every business which sells goods and services has an online presence with most providing people with the option to buy directly from their website. In addition to traditional shops, a vast array of new online shops have grown up, such as Amazon, whilst sites such as eBay allow you to buy and sell in auction conditions to get the best deal. For most products, their availability is not restricted by physical location as they will usually be delivered to your door. Whatever you are looking to buy, the chances are that someone is looking to sell it on the internet, and you can buy it without leaving your house.

With the saying in mind that “time is money”, the internet is also vital in providing people with the ability to manage their finances in an instant. Although many people may have concerns over the security of making transactions online banking has revolutionised the way in which both businesses and individuals look after their money.

People can log on to view their accounts, move money and communicate with their bank wherever they are in the world, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For many this has brought them closer into touch with their finances and made them more proactive if managing them. In addition, both banking and for example, utility websites, offer the ability to pay bills online reducing the effort required to settle them to just a few clicks.

All of these services are invaluable for those who are maybe less than mobile, are pressed for time or perhaps cannot access traditional services due to their restrictive working hours.

For people who are more money-wise, the internet is also an ideal medium through which to make and manage investments due to the instantaneous nature of the transactions that are possible. With the world’s stock markets and financial institutions heavily computer based, investments can now be made at the click of a button.

4. Entertainment

Increasingly the internet is becoming the primary source of leisure media as millions of users access the games, music, books and films that they used to pop down to the shops for. Rather than own physical CDs, DVDs and books, websites provide these media in a digital form either to download or stream (play directly from the internet).

People can download music (with all its artwork) at the click of a button and keep it with them wherever they go on portable devices. Alternatively you can even stream some music for free (often subsidised by advertising) using services such as Spotify and SoundClound. New on the horizon is the potential to store music in the ‘cloud’ (i.e., saved to computers run by organisations such as Google or Apple rather than your own) so that you can then access it wherever you are and whichever device you are using to play it.

More and more ‘video’ gaming is moving online with the ability for players to play against each other wherever they are in the world and communicate as they do so. These services can either stream games directly from the internet or play them on individuals’ games consoles which then communicate with each other to coordinate the game play. For many this is a key social tool and provides another example of the power of the internet in building social communities.

The internet has long been a prime source of video entertainment with sites such as YouTube and Vimeo giving people the chance to share anything from home-made to big budget movie trailers, exposing them to millions of viewers across the world. However, with the greater adoption of broadband providing the chance for people to download or stream greater amounts of information, the internet is also beginning to rival traditional TV with many TV providers, such as the BBC (iPlayer), ITV (ITV Player) and Channel 4 (4OD), running their own online services where programmes are available as and when the viewer wants to watch them. Furthermore, the internet is also being used to download or stream films with many of the traditional movie rental companies offering the service alongside their DVD rentals.

5. Business

The internet is a fundamental resource for any business. Virtually all organisations now have a website, from small start ups to large multinationals. Websites give businesses a way of informing their existing and prospective clients of what they do/offer, how they can be contacted and as mentioned previously often allow customers to transact and communicate directly with them.

Wherever people go to communicate and socialise with each other business is never far behind and increasingly social media technologies are not only being used in the workplace to improve communication but also for companies to communicate directly with their customers and marketplace. They can gauge opinion about their brand or organisation and to increase the awareness or presence of their brand amongst prospective customers. In fact the involvement of advertising in many of these services business models often provides the core funding that allows them to be free of charge to the consumer.

Within the work place, the changes in communication methods that the internet has given rise to have been embraced. Email is a cornerstone of most businesses’ practices whilst many are now making the switch to VoIP for their telephony systems to reduce cost and integrate with other communication channels more effectively. The advent of cloud computing, where you can store your files online rather than your own PC, has given businesses the chance to work outside of the office – or switch from office to office more easily and for a lower cost – as their documents are available to them wherever they go.

Whether you need to access it within the workplace, for leisure or for keeping in contact with loved ones, the internet has the potential to provide you with a myriad of different services to make you life easier and more enjoyable. If you are yet to ‘log on’ or have concerns as to how you can use the internet effectively, safely and securely it is certainly worth finding more information on how to use the internet.

Types of Technology

Technology has permeated every industry and created a new world. There are many areas that have been greatly influenced by the use of technology. A lot of enhancement and productivity has been realized as a result. Though there are many views, both negative and positive, about technology, the bottom line is the impact it has had on many growing industries.

There are many ways to classify the ways in which technology is utilized. To provide an understandable approach, we will list them as types of technology. These include;

• Medical technology – this refers to more than just procedural methods used to treat patients during surgery or for life support. Medical technology goes outside hospital surroundings. There are those who need medical attention even in their homes or whilst working so as to carry on their daily activities effectively. Individuals with hearing impairments can have this corrected through the use of cochlear implants. Those who have missing limbs – legs, arms – can get implants as well and go about life normally. Seniors sometimes run short of breadth thus they need oxygen supply which is also available. Medical technology supports and ensures continuity of life.

• Administrative technology – this basically refers to equipment and other resources used to support everyday undertakings in offices and office buildings. These include printers, photocopiers, fax machines, telephones, industrial vacuum cleaners, etc.

• Instructional technology – this encompasses technologies that are used to teach, learn and communicate certain ideas effectively. These include television, computers, computer software, the internet, videotapes and video recording devices, among others. All these are necessary because they deliver information and communicate in different ways. Each technology is utilized based on the subject matter and the intended result.

• Assistive technology – this is vital in society. It is primarily used to assist those within the community who have disabilities, whether a learning disability, physiological or psychological. This type of technology utilizes specialized equipment, teaching materials and services that will enable these individuals perform and function within their surroundings.

• Information technology – this is to instill knowledge through use of vital resources and materials. The most utilized form of information technology currently is the internet.

The above mentioned technologies can be used independently or together. They are all necessary and important for the development of a community and a nation as a whole. However, over reliance on technologies should be observed. They are meant to assist us develop not vegetate and become inactive. Through the use of aforementioned technologies, we should grow, cultivate ourselves and our environment.

Free Tips to Advertise Your Business Online

Any type of business is always looking to make as much money as possible. To make as much money as possible, a business will spend a lot of money to advertise. However, if you have your own business that you run out of your home then you probably can’t afford to pay a lot of money for advertising. Luckily, the Internet provides a great place for you to advertise for free or a very low cost. Here are a few free tips to advertise your business online.

It’s true that you can pay to advertise online. You can pay to have your ad listed on a specific Website or you can pay to have your ad listed when certain keywords are searched for. While these advertising methods can be very successful, it takes time to figure out how to do well with it. Until you learn you could lose a lot of money using PPC ads. Therefore, it’s usually best to begin with free online advertising.

The first great free way to advertise your business online is with social networking sites. These are sites like MySpace, Facebook, and Twitter. It only takes a few minutes to sign-up on these sites. By setting up social networking pages for your business you’ll get more exposure. This will then lead to more customers. And it’s all completely free.

Another great free tip to advertise your business online is to write articles and submit them to the article submission sites. These are sites like EzineArticles and GoArticles. In the signature box for the article you will include a link to your site. The article submission sites will post your article and then other people can take the article and place it on their site. However, they have to include your signature (and the link back to your site) with the article on their site.

When you write articles you want to be sure to target important keywords. These are words that are related to your site and are searched for a lot. If you put the keywords in the title of the article and then a few times in the body of the article, your article will then show up when people search for those keywords.

There you have 2 great free tips to advertise your business online. Regardless of the type of business you run out of your home, you need all the marketing you can get. The Internet offers 2 great free ways to market your business. These 2 methods are social networking sites and writing articles.

Effective Tips to Make Money Online Fast

What are the best ways to make money online? Recession has hit everyone hard and we are all scouting for ways to earn money both online and offline. There is a vast potential to earn money online fast but as there are many good opportunities that exist.

You must identify ideas that will work and those that don’t, so that you will avoid the pitfalls. Many people tend to prefer offline work to online work and this is truer of people who are not comfortable using computers. However even people with little knowledge of computers can be successful in identifying the best ways to make money online.

So what are the easy ways to earn money online? Let us start looking at the ideas that will help. You may be surprised to know about the various options that are available to make money online fast.

Residual income online is an extremely useful way to earn money. It is very important that you choose the right company and product, which will help you gain the maximum. When the company is selected, the source provides potential to earn residual income for a long period of time.

As traffic increase to the website, so will your income making potential. More people will know about the product, you are promoting which will help increasing the total number of visitors.

You will, be able to make to make money if you optimize your website. There are a number of businesses that are available online and you will need to do a complete research on the kind of business you would to be associated with.

Apart from residual income online you can also make money by selecting best affiliate programs. Do not sign any affiliate program that comes your way but scout for the best, so that you are able to gain the most.

The affiliate program is also known as the referral program or partner program as it enables owners of websites and blogs to earn money by referring individual visitors to the products and services they are promoting.

What are the factors that determine whether the affiliate program that you choose is the best?

  • Commissions – The affiliate program must have a good commission offer which will motivate you to promote their business
  • Tools and resources – Most affiliate programs offer the best tools and resources that can be used to increase traffic to the website. Even if you lack the necessary technical skills, the tools will help in getting your affiliate program up and running. More traffic would translate to more business and more business means more money.
  • Support – Your affiliate program must offer adequate support and help you in finding solutions to the problem you face.
  • Tracking – This is probably the most important aspect of affiliate marketing. The tracking process needs to be accurate as this will help in determining the traffic to the website.

Most people are apprehensive about making money online and especially through affiliate marketing program. Well the fact is, there are plenty of money making opportunities that are available online, provided you look in the right direction.

Buying Automotive GPS Devices, Once Difficult, Now Easy!

Buying automotive GPS devices used to mean essentially getting a master’s degree in engineering. No longer!

For those of us who can’t afford one of the new luxury cars with the impressive GPS navigation system inside, there is hope. You can upgrade your current car with a GPS unit that will help you get where you need to go, and look cool doing it.

When looking for the best automotive GPS device, you can save yourself some heartache by doing research. Don’t be intimidated by the different automotive GPS devices with the myriad of features. This article is designed to help you find the right automotive GPS device at the best price.

All of the automotive GPS devices are made to get your car from one place to another without getting you lost. After that main function, however, they are often as different as night and day.

GPS units come with a feature called Points of Interest (POIs). These are destinations that are popular to a large segment of the population. GPS receivers also have simple screens that feature icons and key pads that allow users to enter their information. You don’t have to be a rocket scientist to be able to use an automotive GPS device.

What can be tough is examining the many different automotive GPS devices to determine which is the most cost-effective. The automotive GPS device that has the most bells and whistles isn’t necessarily the one that’s right for you.

The three most successful automotive GPS device manufacturers are Garmin, Tom Tom, and Magellan. These companies produce top-quality automotive GPS devices that are guaranteed to last a long time.

Garmin is at the top of the automotive GPS device heap. That is because Garmin has almost 50% of the total GPS market. You can find Garmin’s least expensive GPS unit, the Nuvi 200, for less than $150. If you want the big daddy, Garmin also has a GPS device that sells for close to $1,000.

No. 2 on the automotive GPS device ladder is Tom Tom. Tom Tom’s One Third Edition is priced around Garmin’s Nuvi 200, but it comes with more features.

Magellan was the forefather of the automotive GPS device industry. Magellan’s Maestro series gained popularity because units cost between $150-$350. Magellan also has a great partnership with auto club, AAA. Magellan features AAA’s Tour Book in many of its automotive GPS devices. AAA members can access a variety of travel features through this Tour Book feature.

Don’t let trying to choose the right automotive GPS device stress you out. By doing some online research and comparing prices from different retailers, you can find the best unit for your car.

Discover the Secrets to the Best Natural Skin Care Methods

Treating skin properly is something that everyone should be concerned with. You should be aware that proper skin care can also reap benefits that go beyond beautiful-looking skin. There are a number of ways to perform regular skin maintenance. Yet natural skin care has emerged as a way to avoid perfumes and other chemicals that supposedly treat the skin, but potentially can harm it. In the UK, the best natural skin care methods can involve some unorthodox measures – but primarily is easy to accomplish if you’re dedicated to better skin and better overall health.

One recommended method to enhance the skin involves the sustenance that goes into the body every day. Plenty of people find that they need to observe a better diet anyway, yet many may be unaware that a proper diet might just lead to improved skin health, as well. The first and foremost staple in a healthy diet is plentiful amounts of water. We all need a large (though not excessive) daily water intake to boost our body’s waste disposal systems. Not only can lack of hydration lead to constipation of the body…it can “constipate” the skin, as well, through clogged pores and the like. In addition, one should be certain they are eating right. In many cases, when people are experiencing skin problems, the lack of certain nutrients may play a huge role in contributing to those problems. Fiber – whole grains, in particular – is vital to boosting your skin health. Be sure that you do your best to limit sugar intake, as this can hinder skin progress.

One other need those who have skin issues must address is getting more exercise. In fact, getting up and doing a modest amount of daily exercise can increase circulation to the point that skin health shows improvement. The more exercise you do, the more dramatic skin improvement can be!

The type of skin products that can inadvertently harm your skin can be avoided by looking into organic products. Using organic products can be a way to better your skin – and you don’t have to spend a lot to do so. Although there are companies that sell these products, you can also use items like honey and olive oil to revitalize skin.

By obtaining the methods necessary to achieve the best natural skin care possible in the UK, you can see results that refresh and invigorate your skin.

Furniture Painting DIY – How to Paint Wooden Furniture at Home

With usage, paint of wooden furniture becomes fad and furniture looks old and worn. In fact the wood structure of furniture remains intact for many years, it only needs a re-painting process to look like new. Painting home furniture is not a difficult process and you can do it yourself by adhering the following suggestions.

Tools and Materials Needed For Job

  • Brush
  • Foam Roller
  • Sand Paper
  • Wood filler (Putty)
  • Wood Filler Knife
  • Paint-Primer
  • Paint
  • Lacquer or Sealant (optional)
  • Face mask
  • Gloves

Preparing the Home Furniture for Painting Process

Select a well ventilated place and use cloth or plastic sheets to place furniture over it. Clean the furniture and fill the pitted, uneven and scratched areas with wood filler. Apply wood filler and wipe off excessive with a filler knife. Also use wood filler in joints for firm attachment. When wood filler is dried, use sand paper to get smoother surfaces. Now clean the furniture well with a liquid and then with a lint free cloth.

Using Paint-Primer Before Painting

Primer is useful to make the coat of paint to adhere evenly to the wood as well as to get the paint long-lasting. Without primer, paint peel off after few months or a year. Use paint brush on corners and edges and roller on flat surfaces to apply the primer. Don’t worry for the even application of primer, it will be fixed in next steps. When primer has dried, sand it with a fine grit sand paper and then clean the sawdust.

Painting the Home Furniture

Now furniture is ready for applying the paint. Use foam roller on flat surfaces and then paint brush on uneven surfaces and where the roller could not reach. Use paint conditioner to slow down the drying edge of the paint. It helps to make the paint coat more even. Apply a second coat of paint if necessary and let it dry.

Sealant or Lacquer

Although you are done, but for a shiny look, you may like to use paint-sealant at this final stage. It protect the furniture from scratches and add a gloss over it. Again, let the lacquer to dry well before moving the furniture.

Safety Precautions

For personal safety, use good quality face mask to prevent the harmful effects of fumes of paint-chemicals. Carry out all this painting in a well ventilated and illuminated place. Use gloves and full cloths to protect the skin from toxic chemical effects.

There’s Quality and There’s Project Quality!

Budgets and timeframes are integral elements of project management and are often the key elements used when assessing a project’s performance. However a key question that should be included in the mix is “did the project deliver what was expected”.

But what is quality and how does it apply to projects?

Quality means different things to different people. In the traditional sense, quality may be used to describe something produced by a craftsman. From a manufacturing perspective quality is understood as being within tolerances or free from defects. However, from a project management perspective, quality relates to performance against the pre-determined standards, including:

· Whether the project was completed on time · Whether the project was completed within budget · Whether the delivered project outcome met organisational needs · Whether a the deliverable met its required specifications; or · Whether the stakeholders were satisfied.

Ultimately quality management in a project is aimed ensuring project success and reducing the risk of project failure, be that due to technical defects or to poor stakeholder satisfaction.

Planning Quality up Front

To ensure quality is planned from the beginning and implemented throughout the project lifecycle, the production of a ‘Quality Management Plan’ is recommended.

Many organisations use project management methodologies that provide guidance as to the necessary content. AZ/NZS39095: Guide to Quality in Projects is also an excellent reference.

The Quality Management Plan should identify any specific standards the project needs to meet and should clearly identify the success criteria against which the project’s performance can be assessed. Whilst it is human nature to always think in terms of budget or schedule, in many cases projects that are delivered on time and with budget have been deemed to be catastrophic failures as they did not deliver the outcome that was expected.

The purpose of quality management in projects is to ensure that the project outputs delivered are ‘fit-for-purpose’, that is, they meet the required specifications and standards, perform as expected and are delivered on time. This applies not only to technical aspects, but also to documentation and plans.

It’s not all technical

A common mistake that project managers face is that they only focus on the product or technical solution when examining quality. Whilst most put in place appropriate testing, walkthroughs/inspections and systems pilots, many do not pay appropriate attention to the project management aspects. This includes:

· Examining whether the current forms of communication are effective · Ensuring that all the right resources available and working at the required time · Providing correct and accurate reports to the necessary stakeholders on time · Verifying that the actual scope is still in-line with that described in the plan

Managing project quality is not complex. It’s about identifying all the deliverables at the start and deciding how to best confirm their quality, be that through testing, inspection, validation, reviews or observation.

Quality at what cost?

All projects operate within the time/cost/quality triple constraint. As with any planning activity, there is a cost in performing quality checks but this is offset by not having to fix problems down the track. Experience tells us that the later you find a problem, the longer it takes to fix or the larger the impact.

‘Sorting it out later’ might be easier and less costly, however, this may not be an option depending on the nature of the project, or the projects objective. For example, a project involving organisational change would see satisfied or fully-engaged stakeholders as critical and as such things need to be right first time irrespective of the cost.

Quality Management in Small Projects

A ‘Quality Management Plan’ should be produced irrespective of the size, scope and timeframes of a project however it should ‘scaled’ in size and detail accordingly.

Small projects rely more on individual quality activities. Project managers of smaller projects don’t usually apply formal quality management processes as they don’t have time to get through the metrics collection and process improvement steps.


The way project managers choose to manage quality should be appropriate to the size and scope of the project.

Larger or more complex projects will need a formal quality management plan and processes. Smaller projects need to make sure they identify and implement specific quality activities within the project plan.

A good rule of thumb is that the value of the effort and time needed to manage quality should not exceed the value that you expect to gain from the quality management process. This of course must be weighed up against the required level of stakeholder satisfaction.